Myanmar Higher Education Policy

5. Thirty-Year Long-Term Education Development Plan (2001-2002 FY – 2030-2031 FY)

The Thirty-Year Long-Term Education Development Plan (2001-2002 FY – 2030-2031 FY), being implemented in six phases of five-year duration each is now in its twelfth year of implementation. It is the most ambitious of the plans launched by the Ministry of Education. The plan contains 36 programmes for the higher education sub-sector.
The 36 programmes for the higher education sector of the long-term plan focus on six areas that would generate qualitative development of higher education and contribute to national development endeavours and preservation of national identity and culture.
The six core areas under focus are

  1. Human resource development (2 Programmes)
  2. Utilization of technology (6 Programmes)
  3. Expansion of research (3 Programmes)
  4. Development of a lifelong learning society (9 Programmes)
  5. Promotion of the quality of education (15 Programmes)
  6. Preservation of national identity and national values. (1 Programme)

The 36 programmes are:

Human Resource Development (2 Programmes)

  1. To extend programmes that cater to the demands of the communities by exploiting the disciplines and the excellent academic environment and the respective resources and facilities
  2. To develop highly qualified human resources and regional human resource development needed by the State
    Utilization of Technology (6 Programmes)
  3. To be able to use information and communication technology, which is changing and developing with the times, not only as a teaching technology but also as a learning technology
  4. To give priority to communication technology and electronic technology, to enhance skills at all levels of undergraduate and postgraduate studies, especially in continuous education programmes
  5. To include Microtechnology from the undergraduate level and to give priority to carrying out research on fields related to it
  6. To transform the libraries in higher education institutions into Electronic Information Resource Centres
  7. To establish Electronic Resource Centres as Myanmar Electronic Information Network (MEIR_ Net)
  8. To establish the Myanmar Higher Education Network (MHE_Net) that will link all the higher education institutions with the Internet
    Expansion of Research (3 Programmes)
  9. To conduct research not only for the advancement of the discipline concerned, but also for businesses, organizations and enterprises that are in need of modern technology, and those that will benefit the nation directly
  10. To establish higher education institutions specializing in research and to collaborate in research work with international research centres and organizations
  11. To establish a research organization/centre that can carry out full time research on education activities in order to evaluate to what extent the actual outcomes match the visions, objectives and outcomes of education programmes, to discover and evaluate the weaknesses, if necessary to redefine the visions, objectives and outcomes laid down previously and to add, reduce or change programmes
    Development of Lifelong Learning Society (9 Programmes)
  12. To establish higher education institutions that will unceasingly take responsibility of the education of their respective region and community
  13. To conduct vocational courses in collaboration with basic education schools, factories and work establishments so that a pathway can be created to confer Associate Degree and other Degrees
  14. For higher education institutions to implement programmes for re-education and continuing adult education
  15. For higher education institutions to implement programmes related to learning to learn and continuing to learn opportunities by using contemporary technology and focusing on life-long learning
  16. To create opportunities for higher education institutions to deal freely with external work establishments and for learners to be given the opportunity for open entry and re-entry to education
  17. For higher education institutions to innovate and introduce teaching programmes that can fulfil community needs
  18. To transform the whole work force into a learning force rapidly linking all work establishments with higher education institutions
  19. To transform into open education system, to introduce credit bank system and to establish an organization to take charge of these undertakings
  20. Aiming at the emergence of an immense learning society in the future, to create an open education system that will provide opportunities regardless of region and for higher education institutions to create an education system that will be able to cope with diversity and the increase in the number of disciplines and varying educational needs
    Promotion of the Quality of Education (15 Programmes)
  21. For the future higher education system to aim at qualitative transformation, to transform breadth of learning to breadth and depth of learning and to promote the abilities to carry out generative synthesis, to be creative and undertake critical evaluation, and visualize new fields of education
  22. To create a combination system which serves as a sound basis for cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches
  23. To find ways and means to enable the curriculum, teaching methods and evaluation to give emphasis to the development of learner creativity, analytical skills, ability to utilize modern technology and to construct a system that will enhance maturity
  24. For higher education institutions to bring about a sound academic atmosphere and knowledge environment and create the right conditions for the establishment of linkages with international education domain
  25. To reduce the rigidity in the distinction between formal education and non-formal and informal education of higher education institutions until it disappears
  26. To implement diversification and specialization programmes that will provide the right to pursue discipline and combination of one’s choice
  27. To find effective ways to expand the distance education system and transform it into an open university, to expand new teaching programmes, to provide programmes leading to degrees, as well as introduce programmes that will promote skills and to provide the highest and most extensive learning opportunity by utilizing technology
  28. To devise programmes that will promote competition on equal terms and cooperation with international distance education systems
  29. To create part-time courses at higher education institutions
  30. To create education programmes which will overcome the rigidity of traditional education system since it is no longer adequate for higher education institutions to merely provide a fixed body of knowledge
  31. To expand the teaching of foreign languages and to give undergraduates the opportunity to learn another foreign language, in addition to English, for communication and effective use in their respective field of study
  32. To establish a Higher Education Curriculum Centre and to set up an Education Curriculum Council in order to evaluate whether basic education is in consonance with higher education or not
  33. To form the Academic Evaluation and Assessment Council for the higher education sector
  34. To carry out restructuring and reorientation of higher education management system
  35. To carry out changes in the institutional structures of higher education institutions in accordance with the times and to fulfill the need for physical facilities of higher education institutions by setting a basic standard
    Promotion of the Quality of Education (15 Programmes)
  36. No matter how extensive globalization occurs, so that national identity, national values and national well-being do not diminish, curricula, new teaching programmes, researches and public educative programmes must be undertaken after careful consideration, with due regard given to this aspect.

The implementation of the long-term education development plan has led to marked accessibility to higher education. It has brought about noticeable development in the quality of education, the teachers and the learning facilities. It has also created diversity in the education sector producing new modes of learning and new fields of studies.